Friday, October 11, 2019
Impact of Standardized Testing Essay
There is a vast literature available concerning African American male student accomplishment and its relation to the accomplishment gap occurrence (Perry, Stelle, & Hilliard, 2003; Thernstrom & Thernstrom, 2003; Hrabrowksi, 1998; Ogbu, 1998; Patterson, 2006; Polite & Davis, 2001; Duncan, 1999; Freeman, 1999). Researchers and media channels explain the causes of African Americans continuously staying behind their White partners. Several provide limited allegations concerning African American male student accomplishment from either a past, sociological, or monetary view when deciding school achievement or failure. On the contrary, sufficient notice has not been granted to experiential and mixed methodological styles for assisting in advancing the debate concerning the provision of efficient resolutions toward narrowing the achievement gap that exists between African American male learners and counteracting deficit-model styles. In Ã¢â¬Å"Educating African American Males: Voices from the FieldsÃ¢â¬ , the author Fashola (2008) and some other important academician researchers tackle this matter. The book is segmented in eight chapters, locating itself in many thematic areas that include social, ethnic, and past matters; school reform; primary, middle and high school experiences; structural analysis of manliness; institutional types of prejudice; and extra-curricular activities which assist in the promotion of affirmative self-confidence and analytical skills for African American males. Altogether, the providers enunciate the requirement of novel styles by demanding the educational commune to shift beyond conventional means of accomplishment and to comprehend the importance of social, past, ethnic, behavioral, emotional, cognitive, and educational styles that add to the broadening of the achievement gap between African American males and their white partners. Cooper and Jordan (2003) tackle the issues of African American male student achievement and they do this by locating and investigating the past as well as the methodical impacts of prejudice and also by displaying the way institutionalized domination have a part to play in the broadening of the achievement gap. The authors assess the elements such as uncontrolled unemployment, poverty, and insufficient accessibility to health care as the possible elements of African American males not being franchised in the circumstance of school and community. The authors imply that an Ã¢â¬Å"intergenerational povertyÃ¢â¬ (p. 2) exists which disseminates a self-fulfilling prediction for several of African American males. OgbuÃ¢â¬â¢s (1998) research allows for the contextualizing of such past injustices. It is implied that Ã¢â¬Å"the treatment of minorities in the wider society is reflected in their treatment in educationÃ¢â¬ (p. 159). In his book Noguera (2003) assists in the contextualizing of few of the practical attitudes which are required for the comprehension of certain of the behavioral trends of African American males which have an impact on them in school. The author offers information and research which record the way they were marginalized and wronged by the schooling experiences in the capitalist educational frameworks. Text offers a qualitative study which looks for determining the part that educators have in the motivation of students; teachers can utilize this information to reassess and modify their educational and instructional practices and also to fulfill the requirements of African American males and at the same time provide with suitable scaffolding so as to assist the learners in meeting the academic standards. Along with this, Noguera also debates that the learners are to be taught and habituated so as to see that the academic institutions are advantageous to them and also that the anticipations for them are high. Noguera writes about the schooling experiences of African American males by assessing their accomplishment trends in public schools and tackling with their consequent detachment. He writes that Black males underperform on standardized tests and that they undergo much higher drop-out rates. Although Black males achieve much and their performance is good in the primary grades, they tend to underperform by the age of nine (Garibaldi, 1992). His recommendation is that the educators should be placing literary and language enrichment at the head of their instructional concerns. This is particularly important during their primary school times; supplementing with the talents allows for African American males to become self-sufficient, analytical thinking is principal for their general intellectual achievement or failure. Development of Problem An operational attitude to the tradition of schooling also offers a valuable contextual structure for the investigation of student Ã¢â¬Å"oppositionalityÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"resistanceÃ¢â¬ (Ogbu, 1998) as minor traditional features displayed by particular minority learners in reaction to their communal marginalization. The idea of identity and the way it is written either by a person or the community is made pertinent by the reactions of these marginalized learners and is a vital part of a sufficient hypothetical viewpoint on tradition. The academic achievement gap which is present between African American and White learners is a very urgent contest for the urban education in the United States in the present times. Generally, the rank and academic achievement of minority groups in science have been issues of concern in various areas (National Science Foundation, 1994; Atwater, 2000). In a wide-ranging assessment of the issues, Jencks and Phillips (1998) suggest that there should be an application of methodical and preserved research attempts targeted at investigating the causes for the low performance of particular minority groups. When discussing the achievement gap and displaying it as a challenge for the urban education, there has to be an emphasis placed on certain aspects of the urban schools which are responsible for the existent gap. In the United States, the fact that the majority of the Black students study in urban or inner city institutions is correct, and on the other hand White students normally study at suburban schools. It is possible that this factor is responsible for the achievement gap between the Blacks and the Whites and it provides with an urban/suburban aspect. Urban academic institutions are also different from the suburban ones in the accessibility of the study material and commune sources. Even though the fact that the suburban schools normally have much better sources in contrast to the urban schools is true, an exploration can be made in whether the resources that are accessible for the urban schools are utilized most advantageously so as to improve the student involvement and intellectual accomplishment. Even though standardized testing traditionally has been slackly connected to responsibility and student education, the association had been weak. The association between student education and high-stakes standardized testing became more distinct, and a rise in the utilization of the tests has reached classic magnitude following the introduction of the No Child Left Behind. The argument behind such a connection is that raised pressure to perform well on standardized tests, and also a series of incentives and penalties, will raise the student education and accomplishment. Impacts of such testing standards have broad results, not just on the current generation but also on the next generations of youth. Purpose of the Study The purpose of this study is to assess the impact that standardized testing has on African American male students. The study aims to display the issues connected with the impact of standardized testing on African American males. African American males face discrimination and due to that they do not perform as they should in their academics. Innumerable researches have been conducted to examine African American youthsÃ¢â¬â¢ academic results. There is relative concentration with a stress on the achievement gap between African American youths generally and also that of other ethnic categories, like the Europeans and Asian Americans. Several conceptual structures have been offered which propose the achievement gap in educational results is the outcome of societal-level discrimination which afflicts African Americans (for example, Fordham & Ogbu, 1986; Ogbu, 1987, 1994; Steele, 1997). In reality, several of the studies record the negative impacts of such macro system-level elements on the encouragement and intellectual accomplishment of African American learners (Howard & Hammond, 1985; Ponterotto & Pedersen, 1993; Steele & Aronson, 1995). Nature of the Study Social research can be deductive or inductive and each is applied according to the research type. Deductive approach refers to particular information that has been gained from a general theory. Through the theory the researcher gets the foresights concerning the happening. Deductive research is termed as theory testing. In the case when a research initiates with a theory and is following the hypotheses that the researcher has set to test, the approach is deductive. Deductive reasoning sets to work moving from the more universal to the more precise. Induction is usually described as moving from the specific to the general. Observations are used for inductive approaches. Inductive reasoning moves from the more specific to a broader generalization and theory. In this case there is quite some uncertainty involved and the conclusions are based on theories.